Top 8 Frameworks for Developing Single Page Applications in 2022 and beyond

Author: James
June 15, 2022
Top 8 Frameworks for Developing Single Page Applications in 2022 and beyond


The modern consumer has a greater possibility of interacting with your brand if you create unique and engaging experiences. With major companies such as Netflix, Paypal, Gmail, and others using single-page application frameworks to ensure a smoother experience, spa frameworks are now associated with huge potential. Single-page applications have become very popular, considering their advantages in building web and mobile applications. Often, there is a lot of repetitive content on websites when accessed via different devices. For instance, the headers, footers, navigation bars, repeating layouts, and so on remain the same, and single page application architecture ensures less information sent by servers and a faster user experience for customers.

So, how does a single-page application framework actually work?

As per the traditional method, the server renders a full page with every new click done on the website. An example would be accessing a complex website such as Amazon or eBay. Every new click submits data back to server requests and showcases a new page from the server in the browser. But with the introduction of a single page application framework, navigation becomes possible without refreshing the page eliminating extra wait time.

A single-page application is a type of web application that uses codes like HTML, CSS, JS, and so on to request data independently and render pages straight in the browser. It provides an admirable user experience by being fast as well as responsive.

Getting started: What are the frameworks behind single-page applications?

To build a single-page application, a powerful framework is mandatory. The frameworks used should be capable of dealing with the complex architecture involved in developing several web applications. This helps make it interactive and provides a rich experience. Though each framework is not used on a regular basis, it is ideal to have a basic knowledge of the existing frameworks used for developing single-page applications. Some of these include AngularJS, ReactJS, Backbone, EmberJS, MeteorJS, PolymerJS, Aurelia, Vue, Mithril.js, Node.js, and so on.

In this blog, we discuss some of the most popular single page application frameworks for developing single-page applications:

1. AngularJS

Developed by Google, AngularJS is one of the open-source, front-end, JavaScript-based frameworks widely used in creating single-page applications on the client-side. Some single-page application examples that use Angular JS include popular sites such as Microsoft, Google, and PayPal.

It is capable of transferring the entire content directly from the server to the browser, loading all the pages at the same time. Once they are loaded, the page does not reload if a link is clicked upon; instead, the sections within the page are updated instantly. AngularJS enables faster loading of pages as there is less load on the server. The feature of two-way data binding feature in AngularJS saves the burden of writing numerous codes. As a spa framework, Angular JS enables automatic integration of data between model and view components. Further, AngularJS works on MVC architecture.

2. ReactJS

Maintained by Facebook, ReactJS is more of a library than a framework that is used for creating User Interface (UI) applications. Released in 2013, this JavaScript framework saw rapid growth and adaptation to become one of the most preferred frameworks. ReactJS’s long list of advantages enabled its usage as a high-performing enterprise application.

React is comparatively more flexible than AngularJS when used as an spa framework, as the developers need to deal with stand-alone libraries, which enables a good response time. React is well designed for testing and debugging and is mostly used for the ‘View’ component in the MVC architecture. This feature enables the UI to be updated without going back to the server to obtain a new view.

ReactJS is widely used for creating widget-based views and promotes one-way data binding combined with Flux Controls. A feature of ReactJS includes a virtual DOM, for enhanced performance. A browser’s DOM is slow, but with a virtual DOM, as changes are made in the data, a comparison is done to redraw only the changed elements. Maintenance of ReactJS is quite easy as a single-page application architecture, owing to its component-based feature. Both the server and the client-side can utilize ReactJS, which enables the distribution of the load from the server to the client if required.

3. EmberJS

EmberJS is a highly opinionated, open-source framework that promotes greater flexibility. It follows a widget-based approach known by the name Ember components. The templates incorporated with Handlebars get updated automatically as the data changes, using minimal coding. This has made it easy for developers to achieve common and minor tasks.

Ember, as a single-page application framework, stands as the backbone of popular users such as Twitch, Playstation, Linkedin, and so on. Apple Music, which is a desktop application also uses EmberJS. Furthermore, it has a powerful routing system. It works on the Model View-View Model (MVVM) pattern and follows the Convention over Configuration (CoC) model.

The data library offered by EmberJS is quite resourceful. Its developer-friendly API makes many prefer EmberJS over other frameworks. It follows a two-way data binding pattern. Ember’s built-in router also makes it more SEO-friendly compared to other sap frameworks.

4. Backbone.js

Developed and first released in 2010, Backbone.js is a JavaScript framework that offers an MVC framework that abstracts data into models. It is lightweight and flexible, especially for structured codes. It works on an MVP-based architecture. Backbone communicates via events that prevent messing up with the application, that is, the code is cleaner and easier to maintain.

It is a free, open-source library that offers around 100 extensions. It can be used to develop single-page web applications in a well-structured format. Further, it helps to separate business as well as UI logic. The tools offered by Backbone.js include models, events, views, routers, and so on. in order to integrate the client-side applications. Further, if there is any change in the model, the HTML code gets automatically updated.

The client-side single-page web applications and mobile applications could be created in a neat and efficient format using Backbone.js. Backbone.js uses direct DOM manipulation to represent changes in data and application architecture. This framework is used by many popular companies such as Sony Entertainment Network, Airbnb, SoundCloud, and so on.

5. Meteor.js

Meteor.js is a free, open-source, full-stack, JavaScript framework that is created using the Node.js platform. It can be used to create single-page applications on the Node.js platform. Meteor works on data on wire principle which implies that the data is sent by the server instead of HTML, rendering it to the client. This helps access data instantaneously without waiting for a round trip to the server.

With Meteor in action, different applications could be built in one language that is JavaScript, using fewer codes. Companies such as Mazda, Honeywell, Qualcomm, and so on use Meteor.js. It enables live-browser reloading as well. For instance, when it is enabled, as changes happen on the front end to an HTML page, JavaScript or Web connection script, the framework reloads the changes and live pages by default. This enables the concerned DOM element to get refreshed without having to reload the whole page, thus being an advantage when Meteor js is used as a single page application framework. Meteor.js is quite easy to set up while doing projects and promotes higher scalability as well.

6. Polymer js

Developed by Google, Polymer is a Javascript library, released in 2013. It is written in Javascript and HTML and forms a simplified way of creating single-page web applications with cross-browser compatibility. Polymer is user-friendly, be it new or old developers, as it has well-maintained documentation that ensures easier onboarding. It also allows one-way as well as two-way binding.

To build a single page application, Polymer js is a scalable candidate as it is supported by the majority of known browsers, has an end-to-end testing environment called Web component tester, and has a Model View Controller architectural pattern that helps organize code components according to design and performance.

Popular companies such as Youtube, Google, USA Today, Mcdonald’s has used Polymer for a variety of features such as rebuilding mobile and desktop sites, menu board software, collaboration on projects, and so on. With Polymer’s reusable models, development time is significantly reduced as major changes to the code are not required for the addition and attachment of modules.

7. Dojo Toolkit

A Javascript framework that emerged into a lean modern, Typescript first progressive framework was Dojo. Companies such as Cisco, JP Morgan, ADP, Mastercard, and many more use Dojo for their modern web applications and single-page web applications with Typescript. It has a PHP MVC framework. It integrates the necessary tooling for large applications and is open source.

Most Javascript frameworks have a developer-friendly approach. While Dojo has components and widgets that make it one of the spa frameworks to be considered, Dojo has long been identified as an expert-required framework, due to its scattered documentation that is not developer-friendly. However, the latest upgrade to Dojo 2.0 has made the experience smoother for a few developers, with its shift from Javascript to Typescript.

8. Aurelia

Licensed under MIT, Aurelia is a modern UI framework for Javascript which forms a simple and easy-to-use framework to build single-page web applications. An open-source framework supports integration with different frameworks and tools and has a clear and easier coding style. Aurelia also supports one-way and two-way binding.

As an spa framework, aurelia requires less configuration setup. In terms of community support, it has a lesser community size but in terms of compatibility, it is supported by all modern browsers.

Comparison of single-page application frameworks: Which is the one to go for?

Needless to say, it is very important to select the right JavaScript framework for building powerful single-page applications. The choice of selecting the single page app framework depends on the parameters required for the application, the team behind development, security features, and so on.

User Interface

PolymerJSBuilds on Android UI and has a catalog of elements that simplify usage. It allows elements to have Public API’s
Dojo ToolkitDojo Toolkit eases the development of cross-platform Ajax/Javascript-based applications and websites and provides APIs that work on multiple servers.
AureliaAurelia empowers building components using Javascript or Typescript, add custom elements, and is a series of collaborating libraries and web components to help create applications for browser, mobile, or desktop


PolymerPolymer offers modular routing, individual components manage some portion of the route and delegate the rest to other components
Dojo ToolkitDojo router allows mapping of browser hash to a callback that allows for parameterization of hash
AureliaSupports client-side routing and supports standard web browser UX patterns along with deep linking in single-page applications


PolymerPolymer enables the creation of custom elements that work like standard DOM elements. The polymer also lets you declare properties to integrate your element’s property API with the Polymer data system
Dojo ToolkitThe toolkit consists of elements called dojo, dijit, dojox and util that assort the core, UI modules, assorted modules, and build tools into various parts.
AureliaIn Aurelia, user interface components are composed of view and view model pairs.

Data binding

PolymerPolymer allows one way and two-way data binding
Dojo ToolkitProvides a simple method for data binding by keeping two dojo objects at sync and declarative data binding
AureliaHas a powerful data binding system and supports one way and two-way binding


PolymerJSProvides a simplified way of creating custom elements and the ability to compose enclosed CSS, JS, and HTML as custom elements. It also leads to an easy working relationship between designers and developers.
Dojo ToolkitDojo Toolkit targets the needs of large-scale client-side web development. Provides build tools for optimizing Java and CSS, generating documentation, testing, internalization, localization, and accessibility.
AureliaOne of the cleanest modern frameworks with a complete focus on web standards, integration and is composed of HTML view and Javascript view-model pairs. Built as a series of collaborating libraries, it can be used in traditional websites or through servers such as NodeJS.

Different single-page application tutorials may highlight the various pros and cons of each framework from the developer and client end. The field of web application development undergoes constant changes where new frameworks are added regularly and the existing ones are updated. Though it may seem like a Herculean task to understand the differences between these in the beginning, when parameters are known and the features of frameworks understood, it can help choose the right single page application framework.