15 Best Web Application Development Languages In 2022!

March 30, 2022
15 Best Web Application Development Languages In 2022!


Why do Java programmers have to wear glasses?

Because they don't C sharp!

If you’re someone who enjoys a good developer pun every once in a while and happens to be a beginner, an experienced developer or someone googling ‘web application development languages’ for your project, this is the blog for you.

At Toobler, our web app development experts have worked across several front end languages for web development and the most popular backend languages to reach a verdict on the best web application development languages.

Which is, never to choose one based on the hype.

But with so many web application development languages coming out, how do you know when to upgrade? Or what's best? What's the formula to building a well-functioning website?

The answer to this lies in choosing a web app development language that suits your project best. With newer programming languages released over time, it may be easier to shift to the hype, but choosing a programming language based on libraries, tools and compatibility with your project needs is of utmost importance.

So, to help you get started on the ideal way to choose among a web development languages list, our experts at Toobler have curated from experience, some of the best web application development languages.

Best programming languages for web application development: Front end

1. React.js


React is a Javascript library that was initially released in 2013 and is now an open-source Javascript library. It is known for creating powerful user interfaces for web application development which makes it one of the best front end languages booming in popularity these days. The main features of React include JSX, a syntax extension used to write HTML text code alongside React, Reusable components, virtual DOM for interactive web activities among others. As a crucial element of Facebook's technology stack, developers have all the more reason to believe that React might be one of the best language for large scale web apps.

Pros of React

  1. As an open-source tool, it has a knowledge database present and is easier to learn

  2. A virtual DOM removes the hassle of rewriting the entire DOM tree while processing changes

  3. Reusable components which save time

  4. A more stable code due to one-way data flow, that is, changes in the child components do not affect the parent code

  5. SEO friendly

Cons of React

  1. JSX syntax may not be a preference for some web app developers

  2. Has constant updates which may not or may be beneficial for some projects

  3. Due to frequent updates, the database covering their usage may not be updated as quick

When to use React?

  1. For web application development that demands high user interaction

  2. When the codebase requires simplifying

  3. Lags and unresponsive pages due to frequent DOM reloading

  4. For frequent testing of web components

2. Angular JS


Supported by a huge community of developers worldwide and backed by Google, AngularJS is a part of the Javascript ecosystem. As an open-source framework, it is one of the front end languages for web development to go for, if the developer is keen on the design aspect of the web application. Angular JS is known to be suited for larger projects than short term projects.

Pros of Angular JS

  1. An open-source framework backed by Google

  2. Independent components are unit test friendly and maintenance-friendly

  3. Changes made to view are instantly displayed in the model- with two-way data binding

  4. Convenient DOM manipulation

  5. Dependency injections make debugging easier- by allowing components to be isolated and mocked

  6. MVC architecture, use of directives and plain HTML templates

Cons of Angular JS

  1. Require a mandatory JavaScript support

  2. Concepts such as dependency injections may require extra training for novice developers

  3. Requires a developer experienced with MVC architecture

  4. Gaps in the knowledge base in the developer community

When to use Angular JS?

  1. Large scale project with complex infrastructure

  2. Upgrading designs of outdated web applications

  3. Improve user design of the web application

  4. For dynamic content that requires testing

  5. Progressive web applications

3. Vue


Sitting amidst the major players React and Angular in JavaScript, Vue forms one of the top 10 web designing languages and is suited for web interfaces and one-page applications. Vue is backed by Evan You and other community members and lacks the backing of a tech giant, but has seen widespread adoption by several tech companies. Compiled of a diverse range of tools, libraries and features, Vue is one of the software development languages that require a basic knowledge of HTML, CSS and JavaScript.

Pros of Vue

  1. Highly interactive with other frameworks. It is an MVC that works with Component-Based Architecture and different architectural frameworks

  2. Vue JS is highly simplified and is easier to grasp by developers

  3. Two-way data binding and reusable code

  4. Featherweight application and virtual DOM usage

  5. Component-based Architecture that helps with debugging and unit testing

Cons of Vue

  1. Lack of financial support and backing from a giant tech firm

  2. Limited tools in the library and lack of updated knowledge base

  3. Lack of support for large scale projects and risk of over flexibility among teams

When to use Vuejs?

  1. For prototypes and UI focus

  2. For integration to any project with JS for upgrades

  3. For building single-page applications

4. Typescript


Rolled out in 1995, Typescript is a variant of JavaScript and one of the best front end languages for creating large codebases. Not only does Typescript inherit the major pros of JavaScript, but it also includes additional benefits such as optional static typing, early predictability of bugs, and reliability among others. Typescript is majorly suited for large-sized codebases and distributed teams working on the same project.

Pros of Typescript

  1. Lesser error-prone code due to strict static typing where variables can only take certain values, with the compiler alerting developers to type related mistakes

  2. Rich Integrated development environment with features such as code navigation, autocompletion and so on

  3. Object-oriented programming and cross-platform and browser compatibility

  4. Productibility and readability with synctactic sugar and type annotations

  5. Fast refactoring to keep the codebase robust

Cons of Typescript

  1. Type annotations and related features can make the Typescript files larger than JS and slow down the development process

  2. The need to transpile to Javascript before running

  3. Optional and not true static typing

When to use Typescript?

  1. When you have a large codebase

  2. When your development team is accustomed to static typed languages

  3. When a library or framework works best with Typescript

5. Javascript


Saving the best for last, Javascript is arguably one of the best frontend languages used by developers for a variety of projects. Javascript is supported by all browsers and forms one of the pillars of website creation along with HTML and CSS. Javascript was previously used only for client-side scripting and is now used to write server-side code. The versatility of JavaScript among front end and back end languages has reached the point where any browser, computer device and even mobile application read JavaScript code.

Pros of JavaScript

  1. Boosts interactivity to web page elements

  2. One of the most popular and stable programming languages

  3. Versatile nature can be used to build frontend and backend

  4. Flexible programming language create effective UI elements

  5. Wide range of tools, extensions, frameworks and libraries

Cons of Javascript

  1. Hiring professional JS developers is crucial to get a secured website

  2. Increased chances of loopholes and breaches on the client-side

  3. Due to client-side code execution, designing a highly customized website can be an issue in a highly competitive environment

  4. Careful testing of websites is needed as it may be displayed differently across different platforms, browsers require enabling of JavaScript

When to use JavaScript?

  1. For dynamic web pages with elements such as animations, pop up elements, drop-down menus among others

  2. Web application games, browser extensions, server applications

  3. For cross-platform desktop projects with Electron Framework



Hypertext markup language (HTML) is widely used and supported by every browser making it one of the best language for large scale web apps. HTML is widely used with Cascading Style Sheet (CSS) to create advanced and complex websites. The newest version, HTML 5 also comes with features such as geolocation, native audio, and video support among others. HTML is a relatively easy language to learn and use.

Pros of HTML

  1. Light weighted, fast to load and easy to use

  2. Platform independent and simple code structure

  3. Open source and used for data storage

  4. Shorten line of code with tags and attributes

  5. No specific software or application is needed to write HTML code and can be written in sublime text, dreamweaver and so on

Cons of HTML

  1. Longer codes for websites which can lead to bulkiness

  2. HTML can only create static and plain pages

  3. Each page has to be programmed separately, there is no centralization

  4. Requirement of third party services to provide security

  5. Older versions of HTML can result in diminished SEO over time if not updated

  6. Modifications have to be made one page at a time

When to use HTML?

  1. Web document creation and responsive pages on websites

  2. Offline capability with an application cache mechanism

  3. Development of games on web browsers

  4. Client-side storage using local storage and Index DB

  5. Data entry support with HTML

7. CSS


Cascading style sheets or CSS is a text-based coding language that specifies a website format and formulates communication between different websites. Web developers have the freedom to regulate different elements of the web page and with CSS, the design and feel of a website or internet page can be designed. Among front end and back end languages, CSS controls the display at the user's end and enables responsive design.

Pros of CSS

  1. Site speed is increased due to fewer lines of code

  2. Simplified website design along with maintenance due to less code

  3. Easier to modify elements on web pages

  4. Customisation of web pages is easier and it reduces the file transfer size

  5. Better device compatibility and ability to reposition

  6. CSS created websites are SEO friendly and help with improved search rankings

Cons of CSS

  1. Editing time and testing can be impacted by HTML tags associated with CSS selectors

  2. Outdated browsers may interpret the CSS data differently

  3. Open text-based system and is easily accessible

  4. Cross-browser performance testing is required as it may differ with different browsers

  5. Security risks are higher

  6. CSS, CSS1 upto CSS3 can create confusion among developers

When to use CSS?

  1. Use the content with different styles for different pages

  2. Make maintenance of web pages easier

  3. Intent to rank higher in SEO

  4. To make an overall presentation of web page better/ revamping a website page

  5. To contain webpage elements in boxes and float these boxes to specific positions on the page

8. Bootstrap


One of the most used front end languages for web development, Bootstrap is an HTML, CSS and JS framework to develop responsive web applications. Usage of bootstrap helps maintain synergy across different platforms and browsers.

Pros of Bootstrap

  1. Responsive structure and styles

  2. Less cross-browser bugs

  3. Effective grid system and several free and professional templates

  4. Consistent framework that supports a majority of browsers and CSS compatibility fixes

  5. Directly control many elements of the site

  6. Responsive and has a good developer community

Cons of Bootstrap

  1. Customisation is required on a larger scale to prevent similarity between websites

  2. If the design deviates from the customary Bootstrap design, there is extra time required to rewrite files, design and code

  3. Excessive output in HTML

  4. Not ideal for smaller sites as it is less streamlined

  5. Files generated are bigger in size and maybe hefty during the build of larger websites

When to use Bootstrap?

  1. Strict deadlines for website development

  2. For easier customisation

  3. For consistent output across all browsers

  4. For all-round resources that boost the process of web application development

Best programming languages for web application development: Back end

1. Java


Java is one of the most popular backend languages that has been existing for two decades. Java is a general-purpose programming language that uses object-oriented programming and the ‘write once run anywhere’ approach. As an ecosystem of tools, Java contains Java Development Kit, Java Runtime Environment and Integrated Development Environment. The origins of Java started in the early 1990’s and now, a steaming cup of coffee is associated as the symbol of programming. Java is used for desktop, web, and mobile applications.

Pros of using Java

  1. Object-oriented programming language- a shift from the manually allocated, platform-dependent code of C and C#

  2. Independent of OS, with Java, write portable code and run anywhere

  3. Offers distributed computing for technologies to link to remote resources

Cons of using Java

  1. Java requires a significant amount of memory space compared to C and C++ and is significantly slower

  2. Java is not suitable for creating complex UI and does not replicate the native look and feel on desktop

  3. Java has no backup facility

  4. Verbose codes may reduce the readability of the code

When to use Java

  1. For enterprise systems

  2. Internet of Things as Java prevents the low powered and specked hardware in smart devices from getting overloaded

  3. For Big Data projects

  4. Server side applications for online forums, stores, polls, HTML forms and so on

  5. For combining applications or services using Java language

2. .Php


PHP or Hypertext preprocessor is a side scripting language that runs in web servers and does not rely on online browsers. As one of the most popular back end languages, .php is an open-source software that is perfectly suited for web development and can be embedded directly in the HTML code.

Pros of .Php

  1. It is open-source and free and runs on any OS such as UNIX, Windows, Linux and so on

  2. Has a faster rate of loading compared to other programming languages

  3. User friendly and a knowledge base that makes it easier for developers to learn

  4. No lengthy code is required and can be combined with other programming languages

  5. Has an inbuilt database connection and strong library support

Cons of .php

  1. Suitable for smaller projects and not giant web application development

  2. Does not support the use of many features at a time

  3. Lack of debugging tools and error warnings

  4. Security risks due to open source

When to use .php

  1. To create a dynamic website

  2. To interact with the native file system of OS and web server

  3. To encrypt data

  4. Connect web applications with database

  5. Create a login page and modify elements within the database

3. .Net


Created by Microsoft, .NET framework pops up in many of the applications that we know today. It is one of the most popular backend languages owing to its ecosystem that caters to a number of features across a range of different platforms. The .NET programming platform has elements namely .NET framework, .NET Core and Xamarin. The other main components of the .NET ecosystem is the Windows Presentation Foundation, a UI tool, Windows Forms, a .NET framework GUI library and the Base Class Library which forms the framework library for .NET.

Pros of .NET

  1. Cache system to temporarily store data and customized cache implementation to improve performance

  2. Cross platform development with easy deployment and maintenance

  3. Software is divided into smaller sections with object oriented programming

  4. Integrated Development Environment provides a Visual Studio for .NET

  5. Automating monitoring of issues in ASP.NET

  6. Large community of developers as it is open source and boosted security with Windows authentication

Cons of .NET

  1. Chances of vendor lock-in, as .NET is owned by Microsoft and changes may impact projects

  2. Less support during the release of new updates

  3. Licensing cost and less stability of new releases

  4. Chances of memory leaks with larger application size

When to use .NET?

  1. Machine Learning, AI, cloud computing applications

  2. IoT applications

  3. For portability within Microsoft platforms

4. Ruby


If you are a beginner or an expert, Ruby forms one of the most popular backend languages that is convenient and flexible to use. The reason why it makes on the list of top 10 web designing languages is the advantages that this valuable framework provides for developers worldwide. Ruby has a wide range of frameworks, with Rails being the most popular and being attributed to the spread of awareness of Ruby.

Pros of Ruby

  1. Built in securities and functionalities against common attacks on web applications

  2. A well developed Ruby community

  3. Customized scripts for basic commands such as application wrappers

  4. Object-oriented programming

  5. Rubygems to import add ons, libraries, code packages and accelerate debugging

  6. Mark and sweep process for all objects to boost memory usage

  7. Usage of VM to execute code

Cons of Ruby

  1. Slower runtime speeds

  2. Lack of accessibility to open source community documentation

  3. A limited number of Ruby developers in the market

  4. The flexibility such as even on the fly code rewrites, replacement of arithmetic operators on base types may make the language harder to debug

When to use Ruby?

  1. For minimum viable products

  2. Social networking applications- due to its ability to support heavier traffic

  3. Platforms that support large databases

  4. DevOps tools

  5. Automation and Backup

  6. Static website generators and e-commerce platforms

5. Python


Deemed as one of the fastest-growing and versatile, best backend languages that is in use today, Python is now backed by a huge developer community. As a dynamically typed programming language, Python can be used for projects of all sizes. Its use cases extend to startups as well, who have a tight budget and tighter deadlines to release a high-quality product. With extensive support libraries, Python is used across domains such as tech, AI, machine learning data science and web development.

Pros of Python

  1. Asynchronous coding- for building more prototypes with less code and testing faster

  2. Dynamically typed and boosts productivity

  3. Huge community, knowledge base and a library packed with features

  4. Interpreted language which directly interprets the code

  5. Write once, run anywhere portability due to Python Virtual Machine

  6. Open source and easily teams up with other languages using extensions

Cons of Python

  1. Large memory usage

  2. Slow processing power compared to other languages

  3. Line by line interpreted language which can lead to slow execution

  4. Requires thorough testing to avoid runtime errors

  5. Programming is easy, but database access layer is primitive

  6. Global interpretor lock does not allow multi threading

When to use Python?

  1. DevOps and system administration

  2. For prototype creation in web application development

  3. Automated testing

  4. Robotic process automation

  5. Data visualization

6. Node.js


A runtime environment to execute Javascript on the server-side, Node.js rose to its peak in 2017 as one of the best language for large scale web apps. Based on Chrome’s V8 Javascript engine, we see wide adoption of server-side Javascript with Node.js in recent times. Node.js provides an asynchronous environment and works on a non-blocking execution where a block of code runs independently of another. This has also proven to be more effective than thread-based networking. Node.js forms one of the three main components of JavaScript, as Node.js is used for server-side programming.

Pros of Node.js

  1. Wide Javascript stack for any complex function

  2. Open-source community and good knowledge base

  3. Usage of JSON to convert between binary models- leading to effective data transfer, faster performance, responsiveness

  4. Scalable technology for microservices

Cons of Node.js

  1. In case of unclean code or running multiple queued tasks in the background, there is a risk of callback hell which makes code difficult to understand and maintain

  2. CPU intensive tasks slow down the work of runtime due to single thread

  3. Multithreading can only be done on machines with multiple cores

  4. Poorly documented tools in the NPM registry

  5. Less professional developers available

When to use Node.js?

  1. Server-side operations and push notifications

  2. Complex single page applications

  3. Service-oriented Node.js architecture

  4. IoT applications

7. MongoDB


Built on a scale-out architecture, MongoDB helps developers store high volumes of data and build web applications using agile methods. Mongo DB is one of the most popular backend languages that uses a document-oriented data model and an unstructured query language. Due to its scalability and flexibility, developers can learn the language quicker. MongoDB stores data in BSON, a binary encoding JSON.

Pros of Mongo DB

  1. Increased speed of development

  2. No need to synchronize the schema in the database and the application

  3. Easy to scale, set up and install

  4. No need to map application objects to database objects

  5. Data is accessed faster due to the usage of internal memory

  6. MongoDB provides an ID field with every document and acts as the primary key

  7. MongoDB is compatible with a wide range of languages along with professional tech support

Cons of MongoDB

  1. The database takes up a huge amount of memory

  2. There is no transaction support in MongoDB, and hence financial or e-commerce companies cannot go for MongoDB

  3. The limit for document size is 16MB

  4. No relational database

  5. Nesting of documents for more than 100 levels cannot be performed

When to use Mongo DB

  1. For e-commerce sites due to horizontal scalability

  2. Large databases to handle

  3. If your team has worked with JSON before

  4. Managing content management systems and user data

Frameworks for the best functionality: which programming language to go for?

In an analysis of this web app development languages list, we find software languages that have taken front end and back end development to the next level. The libraries of these frameworks offer functionalities and customized features that help developers create reliable, responsive web applications. From open source communities, knowledge bases to customized web application development, the future of the success of your project depends on choosing the best language suited for your web application development process.

Well, if you’re still confused about which web application development language you should use in your project, get on a call with our experts now.